• Philosophers Asked

    What is the nature of the universe?
    Where does it come from?
    Of what is it made?
    How did it come to exist?
    What is its purpose?
    By what process does it change?
    Is it evolving or devolving?
    Does it function by itself or would it degenerate to chaos without some kind of intelligent control?

    Does God exist?
    Is there a Supreme Being?
    If so, what is His nature?
    Did He create the universe?
    Does He continue to control it personally and if so, at what level?
    What is his relationship with man?
    Does he intervene in the affairs of man?
    Is this Being good?
    If this Being is good and all-powerful, how can evil exist?

    Who am I?
    What is the place of man in the universe?
    Is man the highest fruit of the universe or is he just an insignificant speck in infinite space—or something in between?
    Does the spirit of man descend into matter from higher spiritual realms, or has it evolved from matter?
    Is the universe conscious or unconscious of man?
    If it is aware, is it warm and friendly to him, or cold and indifferent, or even hostile?

    What is reality?
    What is mind; what is thought?
    Is thought real?
    Which is superior: mind or matter?
    Has mind created matter or has matter evolved mind?
    Where do ideas come from?
    Does thought have any importance--does it make any difference in our lives--or is it just fantasy?
    What is Truth?
    Is there a universal Truth, true for all men forever, or is Truth relative or individual?

    What determines the fate of each individual?
    Is man a creator and mover of his life, or does he live at the effect of forces over which he has little control?
    Does free will exist or are our lives determined by outside factors—and if so, what are those factors?
    How does life work: is there a Supreme Force that intervenes in our lives?
    Or is everything pre-determined from the beginning of time?
    Or is life just random, full of coincidence and accident?
    Or is there some other control mechanism we do not perceive?

    What is good and what is bad or evil?
    What is moral?
    What is ethical?
    Who decides good and bad, right and wrong; and by what standard?
    Is there an absolute standard of good and bad beyond one’s the personal opinions? Should good and bad be determined by custom, by rational law, or by the situation? What if the decisions of others (society, authorities, laws, etc) determining good and bad are contrary to one’s personal beliefs or freedoms?
    Should you obey others or follow your own conscience?
    Moreover, if as an answer to FIVE, we do not have free will but are ruled by outside factors, what difference does good and bad make?
    We have no choice. If so, we have no responsibility for doing bad.
    Why are things the way they are?
    How should things be ideally?
    What is the good life —for the individual and for the many (society)?
    What would a Utopian society, a heaven on earth, be like? Is it even possible to create a Utopia?
    If so, how?
    Would not a Utopia assure personal freedom?
    What, then, should you do with those who don’t cooperate and violate the Utopian system?
    If you control or punish them, is there no longer a Utopia?

    What is the ideal relation between the individual and the state?
    Should the individual serve the state or the state serve the individual?
    What is the best form of government and what is the worst?
    When is a man justified in disobeying the dictates of the state?
    To what extent should the majority rule and thereby act against the freedom of the minorities?
    When is a man justified in rebelling against the established order and creating a new state?
    What are the relative merits of the different economic systems (capitalism, communism, etc.).

    He who controls education controls the future. What is education?
    How should the young be educated—what is important and what not?
    Who should control education: the parents, the student, the society or the state? Should a student be taught to think for himself or to adopt the beliefs of the society?
    Should man be educated to be free and live for his own interests; or to subjugate his desires to serve others or the state?

    What happens at death?
    Is death the end of everything or is there a soul in man that continues to exist beyond death?
    If so, is that soul immortal or does it too eventually cease to exist?
    If the soul does continue to exist after death, what is the nature of that existence?
    If there is an existence after death, is “good” rewarded and “bad” punished?
    If so, how do you reconcile this with the concept of predestination?
    And if there is a God of INFINITE LOVE and FORGIVENESS, how do you reconcile punishment?


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How Big is Infinity? Georg Cantor math's uncertainty absolute certainty belief cling to a certainty Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann faust goethe Kurt Gödel-incompleteness theorem Alan Turing-unprobable uncomputability

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