• Three Main Worldviews

     The nineteenth century German philosophy Wilhelm Dilthey was the first person to develop a comprehensive theory of worldviews (German: Weltanschauung). The American Heritage dictionary defines a worldview as, "the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world." Our worldviews consist of our most basic beliefs, including our ontology (what we consider real), our epistemology (what we consider to be the best way to obtain knowledge), and our ethics (what we consider good and bad).

    Dilthey felt that all worldviews fell into three main categories, each of which was based on the dominance of one of our primary mental acts or "attitudes":







    Mental act emphasized

    Description














    Representatives





    Related worldviews
    Democritus
     
    Naturalism



    REASON
    (thinking)

    sees the physical, material world (as experieced through sense perception) as being the prime reality




     


    David Hume
    Auguste Comte
    Ludwig Feuerbach

    Secular Humanism
    Plato
    The Idealism of Freedom
    (Subjective Idealism)
    VOLITION
    (willing)

    emphasizes the human experience of free will, seeing it as something that is not the result of physical causation; tends toward a dualistic understanding of the mind
     

    Aristotle
    Immanuel Kant
    William James


    Traditional Theism
    Parmenides
     
    Objective Idealism


    EMOTION
    (feeling)

    sees reality as a living, divine whole and relies more in intuition when it comes to understanding the world

     

     




    Baruch Spinoza
    Hegel
    Goethe
     

    Pantheism

    credit: usefulcharts


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